Tag Archives: philo

The Gospel of Truth, 1

The Gospel of Truth was written circa 150 CE by a member of the Valentinian school of Gnostic Christianity. The author was probably Valentinus himself, though we do not have a direct attribution. Notable for its clear and beautiful prose, it was widely-read throughout the late second century CE and serves as an excellent starting point for an exploration of classical Gnostic Christianity. I will excerpt from the translation by Robert Grant, published in The Nag Hammadi Library and available to read here at the Gnostic Society Library, though I also recommend the translation by Bentley Layton available in The Gnostic Scriptures.

The gospel of truth is joy to those who have received from the Father of truth the gift of knowing him by the power of the Logos, who has come from the Pleroma and who is in the thought and the mind of the Father; he it is who is called “the Savior,” since that is the name of the work which he must do for the redemption of those who have not known the Father.

When reading a text from the Valentinian school, keep in mind that these authors were fond of looking for ways to express several ideas using the same set of words. They read and wrote scripture according to a technique we might compare to the Jewish approach of pardes – drawing from not just the most direct way of reading the text, but seeking clues that point to mystical or even esoteric ideas.

“The gospel of truth” is not the title of this text, though it is now used as that because the original manuscript did not specify a title. On the most direct level, “the gospel of truth” likely refers to the familiar doctrine of Christianity. But to those reading with a more esoteric frame of mind, this phrase referred more widely to the expression of cosmic truth in any form it may take, of which the Christian gospel was just one form.

“The gospel of truth is joy to those who have received from the Father of truth the gift of knowing him by the power of the Logos” – the most direct way to read this is as a fairly innocuous Christian statement, invoking the Father as the provider of truth by way of the Logos. But there is also an esoteric reading here. The “gift” given to us by the Logos is “knowing [the Father]” – where “knowing” means gnosis, a mystical experience of affinity or closeness with the Father.

The word Logos (from the Greek word for word) has a rich history that predates Christianity and its use here invokes that fuller meaning. It is probably familiar to most readers for its use in the Gospel of John. It was almost certainly the intention of the author of the Gospel of John to incorporate the earlier, pre-Christian meanings of the word into his message. Originally, “Logos” was a name the Stoic philosophers gave to the cosmic mind they believed was responsible for coalescing all that exists into a natural order. To the Jewish philosopher Philo of Alexandria, the Stoic Logos was clearly an expression of the power by which the Lord created by speaking, as described in Genesis 1. The opening of the Gospel of John, which paralleled the creation story of Genesis 1, casts the Logos in this way: it “was with God, and was God” at the beginning.

But, for Philo, the Logos expresses another idea: a similarity of essence between the human mind and the Lord’s mind of which it is a reflection. In other words, the human mind and the divine mind are made out of the same “stuff.” This notion is key to understanding the Gnostic philosophy and worldview.

Pleroma is a Greek word which means “fullness” and in this context calls to mind the fullness of the divine presence.  For now we can think of it as the original or genuine cosmic order as conceived in the mind of God – the Platonic realm of Forms.  The concept originates in the dialogs of Plato, which were a source of inspiration for Gnostics of the classical period.  For example, in Phaedo, we find this passage, which compares the “true” heaven and earth to the one in which we live, which may contain many beauties but is still “corrupted and corroded” by comparison:

We live in a hollow of the earth and think we live on the surface, and call the air heaven, …[but] if a man could come to the top of it, and get wings and fly up, he could peep over and look, just as fishes here peep up out of the sea… [so] he could learn and know that that is the true heaven and the true light and the true earth.  For this earth and the stones and all the the places here are corrupted and corroded… so that nothing worth mention grows in the sea, and there is nothing perfect there, one might say, but caves and sand and infinite mud and slime wherever there is any earth, things worth nothing at all as compared with the beauties we have; but again those above as compared with ours would seem to be much superior.  (Phaedo, translated by W. H. D. Rouse, in Great Dialogues of Plato, p. 314)

Thus “the power of the Logos” is not merely the message and acts of Jesus Christ, but all the ways by which we come to gnosis – to a closer awareness of the divine presence. And so the esoteric meaning of this first sentence is that truth, or expression rooted in the genuine cosmic order – in the Pleroma – originates from the Father’s mind and was expressed during the act of creation by speaking words. And, since our minds are akin to the Father’s mind, we can through this affinity become attuned to the Father.

But – if our minds should be by nature ‘attuned’ to the divine wavelength, why aren’t they? I’ll explore this question more deeply in my next post.